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GENERAL: An element which depends for its reference on the reference of another element.

SYNTAX: In binding theory, an element which must be A-bound by an antecedent within its binding domain. EXAMPLE: himself in (i)a is an anaphor with John as its antecedent. The ill-formedness of (i)b and c is due to the lack of a proper antecedent: himself does not agree in person features with I in (i)b, and John is outside the binding domain in (i)c.

(i) a	John hates himself
    b  *I hate himself
    c  *John says that I hate himself
Traces of NP-movement are also considered as anaphors.
LIT. Chomsky, N. (1986a)
Chomsky, N. (1981)
Fiengo, R. and R. May (1994)