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N-bar deletion

SYNTAX: phenomenon of a NP without an overt head but with either a numeral specifier (i) or a possessive pronoun (ii).

(i)  John has [NP three [N' e]]
(ii) These books must be [NP hers [N' e]]
If the N' is an empty category, as indicated in (i) and (ii), it poses a problem for the formulation of the ECP, which it appears to violate. Alternatively, these NPs may in fact be DPs without NP complement.