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SYNTAX: an NP in A-position, which is not a referential expression and is not assigned a theta-role. EXAMPLE: existential there in (i) and expletive it in (ii) are non-arguments.

(i)  There is a man in the garden
(ii) It is certain that John will win
Idiom chunks such as too much in too much has been made of this problem are also considered non-arguments.
LIT. Chomsky, N. (1981)