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SYNTAX: originally a movement rule that moves CPs and PPs to the right periphery of the sentence. EXAMPLE: in (ii) the relative clause which I like is extracted from the subject NP and moved to the right. PPs can be extraposed as well: in (iv) the PP about the Sovjet Union is extraposed.

(i)    [NP Many paintings of young artists [CP which I like]] are on sale 
(ii)   [NP Many paintings of young artists t] are on sale [CP which I like]
(iii)  [NP Many books [PP about the Sovjet Union]] will appear soon
(iv)   [NP Many books t ] will appear soon [PP about the Sovjet Union]
In general, extraposition is optional and clause bound. In Dutch, complement clauses undergo extraposition obligatorily, as shown by the contrast between (v) and (vi).
(v)   * Kees heeft [CP de prijs  aan te nemen] geweigerd
        Kees has       the prize prt to accept refused'
(vi)    Kees heeft t geweigerd [CP de  prijs aan te nemen]
        Kees has     refused      the prize prt to accept
        'Kees has refused to accept the prize'
Finite complement clauses have to be extraposed as well:
(vii)   Kees heeft t besloten [CP dat hij de prijs zal weigeren]
        'Kees has     decided     that he  the prize will refuse'
Often the term 'extraposition' merely refers to the state of being in a right peripheral position.
LIT. Chomsky, N. (1981)
Evers, A. (1975)
Ross, J.R. (1967)
Rutten, J. (1991)